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When the beginning of the forward stroke does not displace any liquid, a pressure shock is emitted, instead of a flow surge.
The shock is caused by the acceleration away from "bottom dead center" before it hits solid liquid.
This acceleration without pumping liquid is caused in 3 ways:
1. Expansion of compressible liquid left form he last discharge stroke, stopping the pump filling properly on its suction stroke.
2. Volume control by limiting back stroke, as in some cam drives.
3. Instant action as from a solenoid drive.
The shock from all three occurs too fast, for an off line flow smoother to catch.
These shocks are bad for all forms of instrumentation, and usually cause pipe shake as well.
An in line through flow damper is needed to intercept the shocks.
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